The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music , folk music , filmi , Indian rock , and Indian pop. Indian pop and Indian rock are derived from western rock and roll. India 's classical music tradition, including Hindustani music , Bhartiya music and Carnatic , has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life. The 30, years old paleolithic and neolithic cave paintings at the UNESCO world heritage site at Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh shows music instruments and dance.
Chalcolithic era BCE onward narrow bar shaped polished stone celts like music instruments, one of the earlier musical instrument in India, were excavated at Sankarjang in the Angul district of Odisha. Vedas c. Starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam BCE , there are several references to music and Panns in the ancient pre-Sangam and Sangam literature starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam BCE.
Among Sangam literature, Mathuraikkanci refers to women singing sevvazhi pann to invoke the mercy of God during childbirth. In Tolkappiyam , the five landscapes of the Sangam literature had each an associated Pann , each describing the mood of the song associated with that landscape.
Among the numerous panns that find mention in the ancient Tamil literature are, Ambal Pann , which is suitable to be played on the flute, sevvazhi pann on the Yazh lute , Nottiram and Sevvazhi expressing pathos, the captivating Kurinji pann and the invigorating Murudappann. The ancient panns over centuries evolved first into a pentatonic scale and later into the seven note Carnatic Sargam. Assamese poet Madhava Kandali , writer of Saptakanda Ramayana , lists several instruments in his version of "Ramayana" , such as mardala , khumuchi, bhemachi, dagar, gratal, ramtal, tabal , jhajhar , jinjiri, bheri mahari, tokari , dosari, kendara , dotara , vina , rudra-vipanchi , etc.
In early 14th century under the Khiljis , there were concerts and competitions between Hindustani and Carnatic musicians. In the early s Jazz pioneers such as John Coltrane and George Harrison collaborated with Indian instrumentalists and started to use Indian instruments such as sitar in their songs.
In the late s and early s, rock and roll fusions with Indian music were well known throughout Europe and North America. In the new millennium , American hip-hop has featured Indian filmi and bhangra. Mainstream hip-hop artists have sampled songs from Bollywood movies and have collaborated with Indian artists , such as Timbaland 's "Indian Flute".
More recently, Bhangraton is a fusion of Bhangra music with reggaeton. The two main traditions of Indian classical music are Carnatic music , which is found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music , which is found in the northern, eastern and central regions.
The basic concepts of this music includes shruti microtones , swaras notes , alankar ornamentations , raga melodies improvised from basic grammars , and tala rhythmic patterns used in percussion. Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called Shrutis, not all equal but each roughly equal to a quarter of a whole tone of the Western music. Carnatic music can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter.
Like Hindustani music, it is melodic , with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana , Kalpanaswaram , Neraval and, in the case of more advanced students, Raga, Tala, Pallavi.
Around ragams are in use today. Annamayya is the first known composer in Carnatic music. Purandara Dasa is considered the father of Carnatic music, while the later musicians Tyagaraja , Shyama Shastry and Muthuswami Dikshitar are considered the trinity of Carnatic music. Ramani , Umayalpuram K. Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its eight-week-long Music Season , which is the world's largest cultural event. Carnatic music has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in the past — years or so.
The tradition of Hindustani music dates back to Vedic times where the hymns in the Sama Veda, an ancient religious text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. It diverged from Carnatic music around the 13th—14th centuries CE, primarily due to Islamic influences. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals.
Classical genres are dhrupad , dhamar , khyal , tarana and sadra , and there are also several semi-classical forms. The root of the name C K arnatic music is derived from Sanskrit. Karnam means ears and Atakam means that which is sweet or that which lingers on. There are many types of music which comes under the category of light classical or semi-classical. These forms place emphasis on explicitly seeking emotion from the audience, as opposed to the classical forms.
The present musical style is derived from non-traditional musical accompaniment to the riffs of Punjab called by the same name. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows and buffaloes.
The second day of the festival is for the man. Bihu dances and songs accompanied by traditional drums and wind instruments are an essential part of this festival. Bihu songs are energetic and with beats to welcome the festive spring. Assamese drums dhol , Pepa usually made from buffalo horn , Gogona are major instruments used.
These songs, composed by Srimanta Sankardeva and Madhavdeva in the 15th—16th centuries, are used to begin prayer services in monasteries , e.
Satra and Namghar associated with the Ekasarana Dharma ; and they also belong to the repertoire of Music of Assam outside the religious context. They are a lyrical strain that express the religious sentiments of the poets reacting to different situations, and differ from other lyrics associated with the Ekasarana Dharma. Prominent instruments used in borgeets are Negera, Taal , Khols etc. Dandiya or Raas is a form of Gujarati cultural dance that is performed with sticks. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance.
It is practiced mainly in the state of Gujarat. Haryana folk music has two main forms: classical folk music of Haryana and desi folk music of Haryana country music of Haryana. Himachal's folk music varies according to the event or the festival. One of the most popular style of music is Nati Music, where nati being the traditional dance that is done on the song.
Nati Music is usually celebratory, and done in fairs or other occasions such as marriages. Jhumair and Domkach are Nagpuri folk music. Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means "beauty". This is one of the most popular forms of dance and music that is practiced all over Maharashtra. It has, in fact, become a necessary part of the Maharashtrian folk dance performances.
Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artists, but male artists may occasionally sing Lavanis. The dance format associated with Lavani is known as Tamasha. Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly performed to the enchanting beats of 'Dholaki', a drum-like instrument.
The dance is performed by attractive women wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a quick tempo. Lavani originated in the arid region of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Music of Manipur and Manipuri dance are heritage of Manipuri people. According to tradition of the Manipuri people in the Himalayan foothills and valleys connecting India to Burma, they are the Gandharvas celestial musicians and dancers in the Vedic texts,  and historic texts of Manipuri people calls the region as Gandharva-desa.
The ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata epic mentions Manipur , where Arjuna meets and falls in love with Chitragada. Lai Haraoba dance likely has ancient roots and shares many similarities with dance postures of Nataraja and his legendary disciple called Tandu locally called Tangkhu. Hadrani Marfa , or simply Marfa music, introduced during 18th century in Hyderabad State by the East African Siddi community from Afro-Arab music of Hadhramawt in Yemen , is a form of celebratory rhythmic music and dance among the Hyderabadi Muslims , played with high tempo using Marfa instrument , daff , Dhol , sticks ,   steel pots and wooden strips called thapi.
Mizo Music originated when couplets were developed during the settlement of Thantlang in Burma between — CE, and folk songs developed during this period were dar hla songs on gong ; Bawh hla War chants , Hlado Chants of hunting ; Nauawih hla Cradle songs A greater development of songs can be seen from the settlement of Lentlang in Burma, estimated between late 15th to 17th Century CE.
The pre-colonial period, that is from the 18th to 19th century was another important era in the history of Mizo folk literature. Prior to the annexation by the British Government, the Mizo occupied the present Mizoram for two centuries. In comparison with the folk songs of Thantlang and Lentlang settlement, the songs of this period are more developed in its number, form and contents. The languages are more polished and the flows also better. Most of the songs of this period are named after the composers.
Jayadeva , the 12th century sanskrit saint-poet, the great composer and illustrious master of classical music, has immense contribution to Odissi music. During his time Odra-Magadhi style music got shaped and achieved its classical status. He indicated the classical ragas prevailing at that time in which these were to be sung.
Prior to that there was the tradition of Chhanda which was simple in musical outline. A couple of treatise namely, Sangita Sarani and Sangi Narayana , were also written in the early path of the 19th century. Odissi Sangita comprises four classes of music namely Dhruvapada , Chitrapada , Chitrakala and Panchal , described in the ancient oriya music texts.
The chief Odissi and Shokabaradi. Odissi Sangita music is a synthesis of four classes of music, i. Dhruvapada , Chitrapada , Chitrakala and Panchal , described in the above-mentioned texts.
They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal , popular in India and Bangladesh. Tagore wrote some 2, songs in Bengali , now known as Rabindra Sangeet , using classical music and traditional folk music as sources.
Rajasthan has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes , including Langas , Sapera , Bhopa , Jogi and Manganiyar lit. Rajasthan Diary quotes it as a soulful, full-throated music with harmonious diversity. The melodies of Rajasthan come from a variety of instruments. Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the huge Nagaras and Dhols to the tiny Damrus. The Daf and Chang are a favorite of Holi the festival of colours revelers.
Rajasthani music is derived from a combination of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by renditions of folk singers. It enjoys a respectable presence in Bollywood music as well. Sufi folk rock contains elements of modern hard rock and traditional folk music with Sufi poetry. While it was pioneered by bands like Junoon in Pakistan it became very popular, especially in north India. More recently, the sufi folk rock song "Bulleya" from the film Ae Dil Hai Mushkil became a mammoth hit.
This is a genre of Nepali folk song of the Tamang people and popular amongst the Nepali speaking community in West Bengal, Sikkim and around the world.